Types of Coaching

The following types of coaching are the approaches I integrate into my practice. They form the foundational philosophy of my theoretical orientation to health and wellness, business, executive, career, relationship, and life coaching. These different types of coaching will influence my approach and guide the work I do with people.

Please keep in mind, I am not currently certified in the individual coaching types. I will be taking continuing education courses in order to hold fidelity to these approaches. The philosophy and concepts of the model itself inform my integrated practice. I will utilize the resources, interventions, and techniques taught in these models. 

Career Coaching: Unlocking Your Professional Potential


In today’s fast-paced and ever-evolving job market, navigating one’s career path can be a daunting task. Many individuals find themselves at a crossroads, unsure of which direction to take or seeking a change in their current career trajectory. This is where career coaching comes into play. Career coaching is a powerful and transformative process that helps individuals identify and achieve their professional goals, unlock their potential, and align their passions with meaningful work. In this article, we will explore the definition of career coaching, different coaching models, its benefits, the importance of evidence-based techniques, coaching session agendas, career coaching plans and goal-setting, as well as some advice for career exploration and changes. Let’s dive in!

Definition of Career Coaching

Career coaching is a specialized form of coaching that focuses on assisting individuals in managing their careers effectively. It involves a collaborative and supportive partnership between the coach and the client, where the coach helps the client explore their strengths, interests, values, and goals to make informed career decisions. The primary objective is to empower the client to enhance their professional skills, overcome obstacles, and achieve career success and fulfillment.

Career coaching vs. career counseling

Career coaching and career counseling inevitably overlap, covering similar challenges, setting comparable goals, and relying on one-on-one conversations (Passmore, 2021). However, counseling “involves a significant amount of time exploring issues in the past and present,” while coaching “encourages a stronger focus on the present and future” (Passmore, 2021, p. 5).

Career coaching is future-oriented and primarily focuses on setting and achieving career-related goals. It aims to help individuals identify their strengths, passions, and values to make strategic career choices that align with their aspirations. Coaches work collaboratively with clients to develop action plans, improve skills, and overcome obstacles to reach their desired career outcomes. Career coaching typically takes place over a shorter time frame and involves a series of focused sessions. The coach helps clients set short-term and long-term goals and supports them in achieving these objectives within a specific timeline. Career coaching often utilizes a forward-thinking, action-oriented approach. Coaches use various tools and exercises to help clients gain clarity, identify obstacles, and design actionable steps to achieve their career goals. The coaching relationship is based on collaboration and empowerment. Career coaches come from diverse professional backgrounds, including coaching, consulting, human resources, or related fields. They often hold certifications from reputable coaching organizations and undergo specific training to specialize in career coaching. Career coaching primarily centers on career-related topics such as setting career goals, job search strategies, interview preparation, career transitions, leadership development, and overall career growth. 

Career counseling tends to be more retrospective and often focuses on helping individuals explore their interests, skills, and personality traits to understand how they relate to different career options. The emphasis is on self-exploration and assessment to gain insights into potential career paths. Career counselors may also provide support for personal and emotional issues that impact career decisions. Career counseling may involve longer-term engagement, as the exploration of interests, values, and career options can be an ongoing process. The counselor takes time to delve deep into the individual’s background, experiences, and aspirations to provide comprehensive guidance. Career counseling typically employs a more therapeutic and introspective approach. Counselors may use various assessment tools and techniques to help clients explore their personality traits, values, and interests, leading to a better understanding of their career preferences. Career counselors typically hold degrees in counseling, psychology, or related fields. They are trained in psychological theories and counseling techniques to address personal and emotional aspects that influence career decision-making. Career counseling addresses a broader spectrum of concerns, including career exploration, vocational assessment, career changes, work-life balance, job dissatisfaction, and emotional factors impacting career decisions.

In summary, career coaching and career counseling are both valuable services designed to support individuals in their career journeys, but they differ in their focus, methodologies, and time frames. Career coaching emphasizes future-oriented goal-setting and action plans, while career counseling delves deeper into self-exploration and addresses emotional aspects related to career decision-making. The choice between career coaching and career counseling depends on the individual’s needs and preferences, as both approaches can be instrumental in fostering personal and professional growth.

Executive vs. career coaching

Executive coaching is typically a subset of career coaching (Passmore, 2021). At its simplest, executive coaching could be defined as coaching for senior, or C-suite, managers” (Passmore, 2021, p. 8). And yet, it can be more than that. Executive coaches support leadership development through a series of one-to-one reflective conversations, requiring significant trust, safety, and support (Passmore, 2021).

3 Goals of career coaches

Career coaches supporting individuals facing an evolving career often focus on three goals (Kauffeld et al., 2022): Assessing the client’s potential for development in terms of their present career situation, goals, and competencies Increasing the client’s “awareness of opportunities for professional development, challenges, and obstacles” (Kauffeld et al., 2022, p. 138) Developing the knowledge and skills required to take the appropriate next steps. Most clients seeking a career coach’s support are either considering starting a new career or facing a forthcoming career transition — potentially outside their control (Kauffeld et al., 2022).

Different Models of Career Coaching

Person-Centered model revolves around the belief that individuals have the necessary resources within themselves to make successful career choices. The coach facilitates self-awareness and self-discovery, helping the client connect with their inner wisdom to identify suitable career paths. Goal-Oriented approach focuses on setting specific and achievable career goals. The coach works with the client to create a roadmap and action plan to reach these objectives, providing guidance and support throughout the journey. Narrative Coaching model encourages clients to explore their career stories and beliefs to understand how they shape their professional lives. By revisiting and reframing these narratives, individuals can gain new insights and make more conscious career choices. Strengths-Based Coaching approach centers on identifying and leveraging the client’s unique strengths and talents to enhance their career satisfaction and performance. The coach helps the client capitalize on their strengths while addressing any weaknesses.


Benefits of Career Coaching

Engaging in career coaching offers numerous advantages, including:

1. Clarity and Direction: Career coaching helps individuals gain clarity about their career objectives and the steps required to achieve them.

2. Improved Self-Confidence: Through self-exploration and skill development, clients become more confident in their abilities to succeed.

3. Enhanced Decision-Making: Career coaching equips clients with tools to make informed and strategic career decisions.

4. Effective Job Search Strategies: Coaches assist with crafting tailored resumes, honing interview skills, and navigating job search processes.

5. Overcoming Obstacles: Career coaches help clients identify and overcome barriers that may hinder career progress.

6. Work-Life Balance: Coaches support individuals in achieving a healthy work-life balance, ensuring fulfillment in both personal and professional domains.


Importance of Evidence-Based Career Coaching Skills & Techniques

In the realm of career coaching, evidence-based practices are vital. By incorporating scientifically validated methods, coaches ensure the effectiveness and ethicality of their services. Evidence-based career coaching relies on data, research, and proven strategies, which enhance client outcomes and overall satisfaction. It also fosters a sense of trust between the coach and the client, as the coach’s recommendations are grounded in empirical support.


Coaching Session Agenda

Career coaching sessions typically follow a structured agenda:

1. Assessment: Coaches use various tools and exercises to evaluate the client’s strengths, interests, values, and career aspirations.

2. Goal Setting: Together, the coach and client establish clear and achievable career goals.

3. Action Planning: A step-by-step plan is formulated to attain the identified goals.

4. Skill Development: Coaches may provide training on resume writing, networking, interviewing, and other relevant skills.

5. Progress Tracking: Regularly reviewing progress and adjusting the plan as needed ensures continuous improvement.

6. Accountability: Coaches keep clients accountable for their commitments and provide support during challenging times.


Career Coaching Plans and Goal Setting

Developing a career coaching plan is a collaborative process tailored to the client’s specific needs and aspirations. It typically includes:

1. Career Vision: Clarifying the ultimate career destination the client wishes to reach.

2. Short and Long-Term Goals: Defining specific objectives for the immediate future and beyond.

3. Action Steps: Outlining the actions required to achieve the set goals.

4. Resource Identification: Identifying the tools, knowledge, and support needed for success.

5. Timeline: Creating a realistic timeline for goal achievement.

6. Evaluation: Establishing methods to measure progress and success.


Advice for Career Exploration or Career Changes

Take the time to assess your strengths, interests, and values to identify suitable career paths. Conduct thorough research on potential careers, industry trends, and job market demand. Connect and network with other professionals in your desired field to gain insights and expand opportunities. Seek guidance and engage with a reputable career coach to receive personalized support and expert advice. Embrace change and be open to exploring new opportunities as part of the growth process.


Career Exploration Resources from the Internet

1. Occupational Outlook Handbook: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/

2. O*NET Online: https://www.onetonline.org/

3. MyNextMove: https://www.mynextmove.org/

4. LinkedIn Learning: https://www.linkedin.com/learning/

5. Coursera: https://www.coursera.org/

6. Glassdoor: https://www.glassdoor.com/


Works Cited and References

Please note that the information provided in this article is based on the author’s expertise and general knowledge. For specific data and evidence on career coaching effectiveness, the following sources were referenced:

  • Cox, E. (2018). The complete handbook of coaching. SAGE.
  • Gilbert, A., & Whittleworth, K. (2009). The OSCAR coaching model: Simplifying workplace coaching. Worth Consulting.
  • Grant, A. M. (2012). An integrated model of goal-focused coaching: An evidence-based framework for teaching and practice. International Coaching Psychology Review, 7(2), 146-165.
  • W. Hall, D. Otazo, and A. Hollenbeck, “Behind Closed Doors: What Really Happens in Executive Coaching,” Organizational Dynamics, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 352-366, 2003.
  • International Coach Federation (ICF): https://coachfederation.org/
  • Kauffeld, S., Güntner, A. V., & Ebner, K. (2022). Career coachingIn S. Greif, H. Möller, W. Scholl, J. Passmore, & F. Müller (Eds.), International handbook of evidence-based coaching (pp. 137–149). Springer.
  • National Career Development Association (NCDA): https://www.ncda.org/aws/NCDA/pt/sp/home_page
  • Passmore, J. (2021). Coaching defined and explored. In J. Passmore (Ed.), The coaches’ handbook: The complete practitioner guide for professional coaches (pp. 3–12). Routledge.
  • Positive Psychology (website) Ultimate Career Coaching Tools (blog article) Retrieved from: https://positivepsychology.com/career-coaching/#what-is-career-coaching-2-models
  • Stober, D. R., & Grant, A. M. (2006). Evidence-based coaching handbook: Putting best practices to work for your clients. Wiley.
  • Whitmore, J. (2009). Coaching for performance. Nicholas Brealey.
  • Yates, J. (2021). Career coaching. In J. Passmore (Ed.), The coaches’ handbook: The complete practitioner guide for professional coaches (pp. 280–290). Routledge.



Career coaching offers a transformative experience, guiding individuals towards fulfilling and successful professional lives. By harnessing evidence-based techniques, individuals can make well-informed career decisions and unleash their full potential. Setting clear goals, staying focused on personal development, and embracing change are all crucial steps in the journey of career exploration and growth. Remember, career coaching is a valuable investment in oneself, paving the way for a rewarding and purposeful professional journey.

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